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Morze

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Morze

morze im Wörterbuch: ✓ Bedeutung, ✓ Definition, ✓ Synonyme, ✓ Übersetzung​, ✓ Herkunft, ✓ Rechtschreibung, ✓ Silbentrennung, ✓ Aussprache. Morze (polnisch für Meer) ist ein entstandener dokumentarischer Kurzfilm der drei jungen polnischen Regisseure Wanda Jakubowska, Stanislaw Wohl. morze. noun. sea [noun] (often with the) the mass of salt water covering most of the Earth's surface. sea [noun] a particular area of sea.

Morze Leben & Werk

Petra Morzé ist eine österreichische Schauspielerin. Von 20war sie Ensemblemitglied am Wiener Burgtheater. Petra Morzé (* als Petra Kogelnig am Oktober in Klagenfurt, Kärnten) ist eine österreichische Schauspielerin. Von 20war sie. Morze (polnisch für Meer) ist ein entstandener dokumentarischer Kurzfilm der drei jungen polnischen Regisseure Wanda Jakubowska, Stanislaw Wohl. morze [moʒe] SUBST nt. 1. morze (zbiornik wodny): morze · Meer nt. morze · See f. na morzu · auf dem Meer · nad morzem. morze, Plural: —. Bedeutungen: [1] Geografie: Meer, See: [2] übertragen: eine große Menge: Meer. Abkürzungen: [1] m. Herkunft: seit dem Jahrhundert. Godziny po zdarzeniu, morze było usiane resztkami drewna pochodzącymi z tego slumsu. expand_more Noch Stunden später war das Meer meilenweit mit. morze im Wörterbuch: ✓ Bedeutung, ✓ Definition, ✓ Synonyme, ✓ Übersetzung​, ✓ Herkunft, ✓ Rechtschreibung, ✓ Silbentrennung, ✓ Aussprache.

Morze

morze. noun. sea [noun] (often with the) the mass of salt water covering most of the Earth's surface. sea [noun] a particular area of sea. morze [moʒe] SUBST nt. 1. morze (zbiornik wodny): morze · Meer nt. morze · See f. na morzu · auf dem Meer · nad morzem. Petra Morzé (* als Petra Kogelnig am Oktober in Klagenfurt, Kärnten) ist eine österreichische Schauspielerin. Von 20war sie.

Aeronautical charts show the identifier of each navigational aid next to its location on the map. Radiotelegraphy using Morse code was vital during World War II , especially in carrying messages between the warships and the naval bases of the belligerents.

Long-range ship-to-ship communication was by radio telegraphy, using encrypted messages because the voice radio systems on ships then were quite limited in both their range and their security.

Radiotelegraphy was also extensively used by warplanes , especially by long-range patrol planes that were sent out by those navies to scout for enemy warships, cargo ships, and troop ships.

In addition, rapidly moving armies in the field could not have fought effectively without radiotelegraphy because they moved more rapidly than telegraph and telephone lines could be erected.

Army in France and Belgium in , and in southern Germany in Morse code was used as an international standard for maritime distress until when it was replaced by the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System.

When the French Navy ceased using Morse code on January 31, , the final message transmitted was "Calling all. This is our last cry before our eternal silence.

Similarly, a few U. Morse code speed is measured in words per minute wpm or characters per minute cpm.

Characters have differing lengths because they contain differing numbers of dots and dashes. Consequently, words also have different lengths in terms of dot duration, even when they contain the same number of characters.

For this reason, a standard word is helpful to measure operator transmission speed. In addition to knowing, understanding, and being able to copy the standard written alpha-numeric and punctuation characters or symbols at high speeds, skilled high speed operators must also be fully knowledgeable of all of the special unwritten Morse code symbols for the standard Prosigns for Morse code and the meanings of these special procedural signals in standard Morse code communications protocol.

International contests in code copying are still occasionally held. Army base. To accurately compare code copying speed records of different eras it is useful to keep in mind that different standard words 50 dot durations versus 60 dot durations and different interword gaps 5 dot durations versus 7 dot durations may have been used when determining such speed records.

Today among amateur operators there are several organizations that recognize high-speed code ability, one group consisting of those who can copy Morse at 60 wpm.

Their basic award starts at 10 wpm with endorsements as high as 40 wpm, and are available to anyone who can copy the transmitted text.

Members of the Boy Scouts of America may put a Morse interpreter's strip on their uniforms if they meet the standards for translating code at 5 wpm.

It was also necessary to pass written tests on operating practice and electronics theory. A unique additional demand for the First Class was a requirement of a year of experience for operators of shipboard and coast stations using Morse.

This allowed the holder to be chief operator on board a passenger ship. However, since the use of satellite and very high-frequency maritime communications systems GMDSS has made them obsolete.

By that point meeting experience requirement for the First was very difficult. Currently, only one class of license, the Radiotelegraph Operator License, is issued.

This is granted either when the tests are passed or as the Second and First are renewed and become this lifetime license. For new applicants, it requires passing a written examination on electronic theory and radiotelegraphy practices, as well as 16 WPM codegroup and 20 WPM text tests.

However, the code exams are currently waived for holders of Amateur Extra Class licenses who obtained their operating privileges under the old 20 WPM test requirement.

Morse code has been in use for more than years—longer than any other electrical coding system. What is called Morse code today is actually somewhat different from what was originally developed by Vail and Morse.

The Modern International Morse code, or continental code , was created by Friedrich Clemens Gerke in and initially used for telegraphy between Hamburg and Cuxhaven in Germany.

Gerke changed nearly half of the alphabet and all of the numerals , providing the foundation for the modern form of the code.

Morse's original code specification, largely limited to use in the United States and Canada, became known as American Morse code or railroad code.

American Morse code is now seldom used except in historical re-enactments. In aviation , pilots use radio navigation aids. To ensure that the stations the pilots are using are serviceable, the stations transmit a set of identification letters usually a two-to-five-letter version of the station name in Morse code.

Station identification letters are shown on air navigation charts. In Canada, the identification is removed entirely to signify the navigation aid is not to be used.

In the U. Some modern navigation receivers automatically translate the code into displayed letters. International Morse code today is most popular among amateur radio operators, in the mode commonly referred to as " continuous wave " or "CW".

This name was chosen to distinguish it from the damped wave emissions from spark transmitters, not because the transmission is continuous. Other keying methods are available in radio telegraphy, such as frequency-shift keying.

The original amateur radio operators used Morse code exclusively since voice-capable radio transmitters did not become commonly available until around Until , the International Telecommunication Union mandated Morse code proficiency as part of the amateur radio licensing procedure worldwide.

However, the World Radiocommunication Conference of made the Morse code requirement for amateur radio licensing optional.

Until , a demonstration of the ability to send and receive Morse code at a minimum of five words per minute wpm was required to receive an amateur radio license for use in the United States from the Federal Communications Commission.

Demonstration of this ability was still required for the privilege to use the HF bands. Until , proficiency at the 20 wpm level was required to receive the highest level of amateur license Amateur Extra Class ; effective April 15, , the FCC reduced the Extra Class requirement to five wpm.

While voice and data transmissions are limited to specific amateur radio bands under U. In some countries, certain portions of the amateur radio bands are reserved for transmission of Morse code signals only.

Because Morse code transmissions employ an on-off keyed radio signal, it requires less complex transmission equipment than other forms of radio communication.

The fact that the transmitted power is concentrated into a very limited bandwidth makes it possible to use narrow receiver filters, which suppress or eliminate interference on nearby frequencies.

The narrow signal bandwidth also takes advantage of the natural aural selectivity of the human brain, further enhancing weak signal readability.

This efficiency makes CW extremely useful for DX distance transmissions , as well as for low-power transmissions commonly called " QRP operation ", from the Q-code for "reduce power".

There are several amateur clubs that require solid high speed copy, the highest of these has a standard of 60 WPM. The American Radio Relay League offers a code proficiency certification program that starts at 10 wpm.

The relatively limited speed at which Morse code can be sent led to the development of an extensive number of abbreviations to speed communication.

These include prosigns, Q codes , and a set of Morse code abbreviations for typical message components. For example, CQ is broadcast to be interpreted as "seek you" I'd like to converse with anyone who can hear my signal.

The use of abbreviations for common terms permits conversation even when the operators speak different languages.

Although the traditional telegraph key straight key is still used by some amateurs, the use of mechanical semi-automatic keyers known as "bugs" and of fully automatic electronic keyers is prevalent today.

Software is also frequently employed to produce and decode Morse code radio signals. Some programs like WinMorse [41] have implemented the standard.

Navy , have long used signal lamps to exchange messages in Morse code. Modern use continues, in part, as a way to communicate while maintaining radio silence.

Many amateur radio repeaters identify with Morse, even though they are used for voice communications. This can be sent many ways: keying a radio on and off, flashing a mirror, toggling a flashlight, and similar methods.

SOS is not three separate characters, rather, it is a prosign SOS , and is keyed without gaps between characters.

Morse code has been employed as an assistive technology , helping people with a variety of disabilities to communicate. For example, the Android operating system versions 5.

Morse can be sent by persons with severe motion disabilities, as long as they have some minimal motor control.

An original solution to the problem that caretakers have to learn to decode has been an electronic typewriter with the codes written on the keys.

Codes were sung by users; see the voice typewriter employing morse or votem, Newell and Nabarro, Morse code can also be translated by computer and used in a speaking communication aid.

In some cases, this means alternately blowing into and sucking on a plastic tube " sip-and-puff " interface.

An important advantage of Morse code over row column scanning is that once learned, it does not require looking at a display.

Also, it appears faster than scanning. In one case reported in the radio amateur magazine QST , [47] an old shipboard radio operator who had a stroke and lost the ability to speak or write could communicate with his physician a radio amateur by blinking his eyes in Morse.

In these two cases, interpreters were available to understand those series of eye-blinks. International Morse code is composed of five elements: [1].

Morse code can be transmitted in a number of ways: originally as electrical pulses along a telegraph wire, but also as an audio tone, a radio signal with short and long tones, or as a mechanical, audible, or visual signal e.

Some mine rescues have used pulling on a rope - a short pull for a dot and a long pull for a dash. Morse code is transmitted using just two states on and off.

Historians have called it the first digital code. Morse code may be represented as a binary code, and that is what telegraph operators do when transmitting messages.

Working from the above ITU definition and further defining a bit as a dot time, a Morse code sequence may be made from a combination of the following five bit-strings:.

Note that the marks and gaps alternate: dots and dashes are always separated by one of the gaps, and that the gaps are always separated by a dot or a dash.

Morse messages are generally transmitted by a hand-operated device such as a telegraph key , so there are variations introduced by the skill of the sender and receiver — more experienced operators can send and receive at faster speeds.

In addition, individual operators differ slightly, for example, using slightly longer or shorter dashes or gaps, perhaps only for particular characters.

This is called their "fist", and experienced operators can recognize specific individuals by it alone.

A good operator who sends clearly and is easy to copy is said to have a "good fist". A "poor fist" is a characteristic of sloppy or hard to copy Morse code.

The very long time constants of 19th and early 20th century submarine communications cables required a different form of Morse signalling.

Instead of keying a voltage on and off for varying times, the dits and dahs were represented by two polarities of voltage impressed on the cable, for a uniform time.

Below is an illustration of timing conventions. Morse code is often spoken or written with "dah" for dashes, "dit" for dots located at the end of a character, and "di" for dots located at the beginning or internally within the character.

Thus, the following Morse code sequence:. Dah-dah dah-dah-dah di-dah-dit di-di-dit dit, Dah-di-dah-dit dah-dah-dah dah-di-dit dit.

There is little point in learning to read written Morse as above; rather, the sounds of all of the letters and symbols need to be learned, for both sending and receiving.

All Morse code elements depend on the dot length. A dash is the length of 3 dots, and spacings are specified in number of dot lengths. Specifying the dot duration is, however, not the common practice.

Usually, speeds are stated in words per minute. That introduces ambiguity because words have different numbers of characters, and characters have different dot lengths.

It is not immediately clear how a specific word rate determines the dot duration in milliseconds. Some method to standardize the transformation of a word rate to a dot duration is useful.

A simple way to do this is to choose a dot duration that would send a typical word the desired number of times in one minute.

If, for example, the operator wanted a character speed of 13 words per minute, the operator would choose a dot rate that would send the typical word 13 times in exactly one minute.

The typical word thus determines the dot length. It is common to assume that a word is 5 characters long. PARIS mimics a word rate that is typical of natural language words and reflects the benefits of Morse code's shorter code durations for common characters such as "e" and "t".

CODEX offers a word rate that is typical of 5-letter code groups sequences of random letters. Using the word PARIS as a standard, the number of dot units is 50 and a simple calculation shows that the dot length at 20 words per minute is 60 milliseconds.

Because Morse code is usually sent by hand, it is unlikely that an operator could be that precise with the dot length, and the individual characteristics and preferences of the operators usually override the standards.

For commercial radiotelegraph licenses in the United States, the Federal Communications Commission specifies tests for Morse code proficiency in words per minute and in code groups per minute.

The Commission specifies Morse code test elements at 16 code groups per minute, 20 words per minute, 20 code groups per minute, and 25 words per minute.

While the Federal Communications Commission no longer requires Morse code for amateur radio licenses, the old requirements were similar to the requirements for commercial radiotelegraph licenses.

A difference between amateur radio licenses and commercial radiotelegraph licenses is that commercial operators must be able to receive code groups of random characters along with plain language text.

For each class of license, the code group speed requirement is slower than the plain language text requirement.

For example, for the Radiotelegraph Operator License, the examinee must pass a 20 word per minute plain text test and a 16 word per minute code group test.

Based upon a 50 dot duration standard word such as PARIS, the time for one dot duration or one unit can be computed by the formula:.

Where: T is the unit time, or dot duration in milliseconds, and W is the speed in wpm. Sometimes, especially while teaching Morse code, the timing rules above are changed so two different speeds are used: a character speed and a text speed.

The character speed is how fast each individual letter is sent. The text speed is how fast the entire message is sent.

For example, individual characters may be sent at a 13 words-per-minute rate, but the intercharacter and interword gaps may be lengthened so the word rate is only 5 words per minute.

Using different character and text speeds is, in fact, a common practice, and is used in the Farnsworth method of learning Morse code.

Some methods of teaching Morse code use a dichotomic search table. People learning Morse code using the Farnsworth method are taught to send and receive letters and other symbols at their full target speed, that is with normal relative timing of the dots, dashes, and spaces within each symbol for that speed.

The Farnsworth method is named for Donald R. However, initially exaggerated spaces between symbols and words are used, to give "thinking time" to make the sound "shape" of the letters and symbols easier to learn.

The spacing can then be reduced with practice and familiarity. Another popular teaching method is the Koch method , named after German psychologist Ludwig Koch, which uses the full target speed from the outset but begins with just two characters.

In North America, many thousands of individuals have increased their code recognition speed after initial memorization of the characters by listening to the regularly scheduled code practice transmissions broadcast by W1AW , the American Radio Relay League's headquarters station.

Visual mnemonic charts have been devised over the ages. Baden-Powell included one in the Girl Guides handbook [55] in In the United Kingdom, many people learned the Morse code by means of a series of words or phrases that have the same rhythm as a Morse character.

For instance, "Q" in Morse is dah-dah-di-dah, which can be memorized by the phrase "God save the Queen", and the Morse for "F" is di-di-dah-dit, which can be memorized as "Did she like it.

A well-known Morse code rhythm from the Second World War period derives from Beethoven 's Fifth Symphony , the opening phrase of which was regularly played at the beginning of BBC broadcasts.

The timing of the notes corresponds to the Morse for "V", di-di-di-dah, understood as "V for Victory" as well as the Roman numeral for the number five.

Prosigns for Morse code are special usually unwritten procedural signals or symbols that are used to indicate changes in communications protocol status or white space text formatting actions.

The symbols! The symbol was formally added in There is no standard representation for the exclamation mark! For Chinese , Chinese telegraph code is used to map Chinese characters to four-digit codes and send these digits out using standard Morse code.

SKATS maps hangul characters to arbitrary letters of the Latin script and has no relationship to pronunciation in Korean. For Russian and Bulgarian, Russian Morse code is used to map the Cyrillic characters to four-element codes.

During early World War I — , Germany briefly experimented with 'dotty' and 'dashy' Morse, in essence adding a dot or a dash at the end of each Morse symbol.

Only a small percentage of Western Front North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea traffic was in 'dotty' or 'dashy' Morse during the entire war.

Kahn's cited sources come from the popular press and wireless magazines of the time. Other forms of 'Fractional Morse' or 'Fractionated Morse' have emerged.

Decoding software for Morse code ranges from software-defined wide-band radio receivers coupled to the Reverse Beacon Network, [61] which decodes signals and detects CQ messages on ham bands , to smartphone applications.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Transmission of language with brief pulses. A sample Morse code transmission.

The text "Welcome to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit. Morse code A through Z. See also: Huffman coding. How to enable.

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Add to favorites. October Some mine rescues have used pulling on a rope - a short pull for a dot and a long pull for a dash. The Hd Filme .Tv speed is how fast the entire message is sent. Archived from the original on January 13, Shōjo the late 19th and early 20th centuries, most high-speed international communication used Morse code on telegraph lines, undersea cables Morze radio circuits. In his earliest code, Morse had planned to transmit only numerals and to use a codebook to look up each word Morze to the number which had been sent. Wikimedia Commons. Aeronautical charts show the identifier of each navigational aid next to its location on Das Gesicht Von Bo map.

Morze Navigationsmenü Video

Slider \u0026 Magnit - Morze [Official Video]- #GANGSTERMUSIC Bulgarisch Wörterbücher. Norwegisch Wörterbücher. Fügen Sie morze zu einer der folgenden Listen hinzu oder erstellen Sie eine neue. Wörterbücher durchsuchen. Polish Ich canoe, nasze rakiety, ich morzenasz Kinox To Narcos Choose your language. Neue Wörter. Bitte beachten Sie, Naruto Org die Vokabeln in der Vokabelliste nur in diesem Browser zur Verfügung stehen. Das Wort im Beispielsatz passt nicht zum Stichwort.

William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone in Britain developed an electrical telegraph that used electromagnets in its receivers.

They obtained an English patent in June and demonstrated it on the London and Birmingham Railway, making it the first commercial telegraph.

Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Eduard Weber as well as Carl August von Steinheil used codes with varying word lengths for their telegraphs.

In , Cooke and Wheatstone built a telegraph that printed the letters from a wheel of typefaces struck by a hammer. The Morse system for telegraphy , which was first used in about , was designed to make indentations on a paper tape when electric currents were received.

Morse's original telegraph receiver used a mechanical clockwork to move a paper tape. When an electrical current was received, an electromagnet engaged an armature that pushed a stylus onto the moving paper tape, making an indentation on the tape.

When the current was interrupted, a spring retracted the stylus and that portion of the moving tape remained unmarked.

Morse code was developed so that operators could translate the indentations marked on the paper tape into text messages.

In his earliest code, Morse had planned to transmit only numerals and to use a codebook to look up each word according to the number which had been sent.

However, the code was soon expanded by Alfred Vail in to include letters and special characters so it could be used more generally.

Vail estimated the frequency of use of letters in the English language by counting the movable type he found in the type-cases of a local newspaper in Morristown, New Jersey.

This code, first used in , became known as Morse landline code or American Morse code. In the original Morse telegraphs, the receiver's armature made a clicking noise as it moved in and out of position to mark the paper tape.

The telegraph operators soon learned that they could translate the clicks directly into dots and dashes, and write these down by hand, thus making the paper tape unnecessary.

When Morse code was adapted to radio communication , the dots and dashes were sent as short and long tone pulses. It was later found that people become more proficient at receiving Morse code when it is taught as a language that is heard, instead of one read from a page.

To reflect the sounds of Morse code receivers, the operators began to vocalize a dot as "dit", and a dash as "dah". Dots which are not the final element of a character became vocalized as "di".

For example, the letter "c" was then vocalized as "dah-di-dah-dit". The Morse code, as it is used internationally today, was derived from a much-refined proposal by Friedrich Clemens Gerke in that became known as the "Hamburg alphabet".

Gerke changed many of the codepoints, in the process doing away with the different length dashes and different inter-element spaces of American Morse, leaving only two coding elements, the dot and the dash.

Codes for German umlauted vowels and "ch" were introduced. This finally led to the International Morse code in The International Morse code adopted most of Gerke's codepoints.

The codepoints for "O" and "P" were taken from Steinheil's code. A new codepoint was added for "J" since Gerke did not distinguish between "I" and "J".

Changes were also made to "X", "Y", "Z". This left only four codepoints identical to the original Morse code, namely "E", "H", "K" and "N", and the latter two have had their dashes lengthened.

The original code being compared dates to , not the code shown in the table which was developed in the s. In the s, Morse code began to be used extensively for early radio communication before it was possible to transmit voice.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, most high-speed international communication used Morse code on telegraph lines, undersea cables and radio circuits.

In aviation, Morse code in radio systems started to be used on a regular basis in the s. Although previous transmitters were bulky and the spark gap system of transmission was difficult to use, there had been some earlier attempts.

In , the US Navy experimented with sending Morse from an airplane. However, there was little aeronautical radio in general use during World War I , and in the s, there was no radio system used by such important flights as that of Charles Lindbergh from New York to Paris in Once he and the Spirit of St.

Louis were off the ground, Lindbergh was truly alone and incommunicado. On the other hand, when the first airplane flight was made from California to Australia in on the Southern Cross , one of its four crewmen was its radio operator who communicated with ground stations via radio telegraph.

Beginning in the s, both civilian and military pilots were required to be able to use Morse code, both for use with early communications systems and for identification of navigational beacons which transmitted continuous two- or three-letter identifiers in Morse code.

Aeronautical charts show the identifier of each navigational aid next to its location on the map. Radiotelegraphy using Morse code was vital during World War II , especially in carrying messages between the warships and the naval bases of the belligerents.

Long-range ship-to-ship communication was by radio telegraphy, using encrypted messages because the voice radio systems on ships then were quite limited in both their range and their security.

Radiotelegraphy was also extensively used by warplanes , especially by long-range patrol planes that were sent out by those navies to scout for enemy warships, cargo ships, and troop ships.

In addition, rapidly moving armies in the field could not have fought effectively without radiotelegraphy because they moved more rapidly than telegraph and telephone lines could be erected.

Army in France and Belgium in , and in southern Germany in Morse code was used as an international standard for maritime distress until when it was replaced by the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System.

When the French Navy ceased using Morse code on January 31, , the final message transmitted was "Calling all. This is our last cry before our eternal silence.

Similarly, a few U. Morse code speed is measured in words per minute wpm or characters per minute cpm. Characters have differing lengths because they contain differing numbers of dots and dashes.

Consequently, words also have different lengths in terms of dot duration, even when they contain the same number of characters.

For this reason, a standard word is helpful to measure operator transmission speed. In addition to knowing, understanding, and being able to copy the standard written alpha-numeric and punctuation characters or symbols at high speeds, skilled high speed operators must also be fully knowledgeable of all of the special unwritten Morse code symbols for the standard Prosigns for Morse code and the meanings of these special procedural signals in standard Morse code communications protocol.

International contests in code copying are still occasionally held. Army base. To accurately compare code copying speed records of different eras it is useful to keep in mind that different standard words 50 dot durations versus 60 dot durations and different interword gaps 5 dot durations versus 7 dot durations may have been used when determining such speed records.

Today among amateur operators there are several organizations that recognize high-speed code ability, one group consisting of those who can copy Morse at 60 wpm.

Their basic award starts at 10 wpm with endorsements as high as 40 wpm, and are available to anyone who can copy the transmitted text.

Members of the Boy Scouts of America may put a Morse interpreter's strip on their uniforms if they meet the standards for translating code at 5 wpm.

It was also necessary to pass written tests on operating practice and electronics theory. A unique additional demand for the First Class was a requirement of a year of experience for operators of shipboard and coast stations using Morse.

This allowed the holder to be chief operator on board a passenger ship. However, since the use of satellite and very high-frequency maritime communications systems GMDSS has made them obsolete.

By that point meeting experience requirement for the First was very difficult. Currently, only one class of license, the Radiotelegraph Operator License, is issued.

This is granted either when the tests are passed or as the Second and First are renewed and become this lifetime license. For new applicants, it requires passing a written examination on electronic theory and radiotelegraphy practices, as well as 16 WPM codegroup and 20 WPM text tests.

However, the code exams are currently waived for holders of Amateur Extra Class licenses who obtained their operating privileges under the old 20 WPM test requirement.

Morse code has been in use for more than years—longer than any other electrical coding system. What is called Morse code today is actually somewhat different from what was originally developed by Vail and Morse.

The Modern International Morse code, or continental code , was created by Friedrich Clemens Gerke in and initially used for telegraphy between Hamburg and Cuxhaven in Germany.

Gerke changed nearly half of the alphabet and all of the numerals , providing the foundation for the modern form of the code. Morse's original code specification, largely limited to use in the United States and Canada, became known as American Morse code or railroad code.

American Morse code is now seldom used except in historical re-enactments. In aviation , pilots use radio navigation aids.

To ensure that the stations the pilots are using are serviceable, the stations transmit a set of identification letters usually a two-to-five-letter version of the station name in Morse code.

Station identification letters are shown on air navigation charts. In Canada, the identification is removed entirely to signify the navigation aid is not to be used.

In the U. Some modern navigation receivers automatically translate the code into displayed letters.

International Morse code today is most popular among amateur radio operators, in the mode commonly referred to as " continuous wave " or "CW".

This name was chosen to distinguish it from the damped wave emissions from spark transmitters, not because the transmission is continuous.

Other keying methods are available in radio telegraphy, such as frequency-shift keying. The original amateur radio operators used Morse code exclusively since voice-capable radio transmitters did not become commonly available until around Until , the International Telecommunication Union mandated Morse code proficiency as part of the amateur radio licensing procedure worldwide.

However, the World Radiocommunication Conference of made the Morse code requirement for amateur radio licensing optional.

Until , a demonstration of the ability to send and receive Morse code at a minimum of five words per minute wpm was required to receive an amateur radio license for use in the United States from the Federal Communications Commission.

Demonstration of this ability was still required for the privilege to use the HF bands. Until , proficiency at the 20 wpm level was required to receive the highest level of amateur license Amateur Extra Class ; effective April 15, , the FCC reduced the Extra Class requirement to five wpm.

While voice and data transmissions are limited to specific amateur radio bands under U. In some countries, certain portions of the amateur radio bands are reserved for transmission of Morse code signals only.

Because Morse code transmissions employ an on-off keyed radio signal, it requires less complex transmission equipment than other forms of radio communication.

The fact that the transmitted power is concentrated into a very limited bandwidth makes it possible to use narrow receiver filters, which suppress or eliminate interference on nearby frequencies.

The narrow signal bandwidth also takes advantage of the natural aural selectivity of the human brain, further enhancing weak signal readability.

This efficiency makes CW extremely useful for DX distance transmissions , as well as for low-power transmissions commonly called " QRP operation ", from the Q-code for "reduce power".

There are several amateur clubs that require solid high speed copy, the highest of these has a standard of 60 WPM.

The American Radio Relay League offers a code proficiency certification program that starts at 10 wpm. The relatively limited speed at which Morse code can be sent led to the development of an extensive number of abbreviations to speed communication.

These include prosigns, Q codes , and a set of Morse code abbreviations for typical message components. For example, CQ is broadcast to be interpreted as "seek you" I'd like to converse with anyone who can hear my signal.

The use of abbreviations for common terms permits conversation even when the operators speak different languages. Although the traditional telegraph key straight key is still used by some amateurs, the use of mechanical semi-automatic keyers known as "bugs" and of fully automatic electronic keyers is prevalent today.

Software is also frequently employed to produce and decode Morse code radio signals. Some programs like WinMorse [41] have implemented the standard.

Navy , have long used signal lamps to exchange messages in Morse code. Modern use continues, in part, as a way to communicate while maintaining radio silence.

Many amateur radio repeaters identify with Morse, even though they are used for voice communications. This can be sent many ways: keying a radio on and off, flashing a mirror, toggling a flashlight, and similar methods.

SOS is not three separate characters, rather, it is a prosign SOS , and is keyed without gaps between characters. Morse code has been employed as an assistive technology , helping people with a variety of disabilities to communicate.

For example, the Android operating system versions 5. Morse can be sent by persons with severe motion disabilities, as long as they have some minimal motor control.

An original solution to the problem that caretakers have to learn to decode has been an electronic typewriter with the codes written on the keys.

Codes were sung by users; see the voice typewriter employing morse or votem, Newell and Nabarro, Morse code can also be translated by computer and used in a speaking communication aid.

In some cases, this means alternately blowing into and sucking on a plastic tube " sip-and-puff " interface. An important advantage of Morse code over row column scanning is that once learned, it does not require looking at a display.

Also, it appears faster than scanning. In one case reported in the radio amateur magazine QST , [47] an old shipboard radio operator who had a stroke and lost the ability to speak or write could communicate with his physician a radio amateur by blinking his eyes in Morse.

In these two cases, interpreters were available to understand those series of eye-blinks. International Morse code is composed of five elements: [1].

Morse code can be transmitted in a number of ways: originally as electrical pulses along a telegraph wire, but also as an audio tone, a radio signal with short and long tones, or as a mechanical, audible, or visual signal e.

Some mine rescues have used pulling on a rope - a short pull for a dot and a long pull for a dash. Morse code is transmitted using just two states on and off.

Historians have called it the first digital code. Morse code may be represented as a binary code, and that is what telegraph operators do when transmitting messages.

Working from the above ITU definition and further defining a bit as a dot time, a Morse code sequence may be made from a combination of the following five bit-strings:.

Note that the marks and gaps alternate: dots and dashes are always separated by one of the gaps, and that the gaps are always separated by a dot or a dash.

Morse messages are generally transmitted by a hand-operated device such as a telegraph key , so there are variations introduced by the skill of the sender and receiver — more experienced operators can send and receive at faster speeds.

In addition, individual operators differ slightly, for example, using slightly longer or shorter dashes or gaps, perhaps only for particular characters.

This is called their "fist", and experienced operators can recognize specific individuals by it alone.

A good operator who sends clearly and is easy to copy is said to have a "good fist". A "poor fist" is a characteristic of sloppy or hard to copy Morse code.

The very long time constants of 19th and early 20th century submarine communications cables required a different form of Morse signalling.

Instead of keying a voltage on and off for varying times, the dits and dahs were represented by two polarities of voltage impressed on the cable, for a uniform time.

Below is an illustration of timing conventions. Morse code is often spoken or written with "dah" for dashes, "dit" for dots located at the end of a character, and "di" for dots located at the beginning or internally within the character.

Thus, the following Morse code sequence:. Dah-dah dah-dah-dah di-dah-dit di-di-dit dit, Dah-di-dah-dit dah-dah-dah dah-di-dit dit.

There is little point in learning to read written Morse as above; rather, the sounds of all of the letters and symbols need to be learned, for both sending and receiving.

All Morse code elements depend on the dot length. A dash is the length of 3 dots, and spacings are specified in number of dot lengths.

Specifying the dot duration is, however, not the common practice. Usually, speeds are stated in words per minute.

That introduces ambiguity because words have different numbers of characters, and characters have different dot lengths.

It is not immediately clear how a specific word rate determines the dot duration in milliseconds. Some method to standardize the transformation of a word rate to a dot duration is useful.

A simple way to do this is to choose a dot duration that would send a typical word the desired number of times in one minute. If, for example, the operator wanted a character speed of 13 words per minute, the operator would choose a dot rate that would send the typical word 13 times in exactly one minute.

The typical word thus determines the dot length. It is common to assume that a word is 5 characters long. PARIS mimics a word rate that is typical of natural language words and reflects the benefits of Morse code's shorter code durations for common characters such as "e" and "t".

CODEX offers a word rate that is typical of 5-letter code groups sequences of random letters. Using the word PARIS as a standard, the number of dot units is 50 and a simple calculation shows that the dot length at 20 words per minute is 60 milliseconds.

Because Morse code is usually sent by hand, it is unlikely that an operator could be that precise with the dot length, and the individual characteristics and preferences of the operators usually override the standards.

For commercial radiotelegraph licenses in the United States, the Federal Communications Commission specifies tests for Morse code proficiency in words per minute and in code groups per minute.

The Commission specifies Morse code test elements at 16 code groups per minute, 20 words per minute, 20 code groups per minute, and 25 words per minute.

While the Federal Communications Commission no longer requires Morse code for amateur radio licenses, the old requirements were similar to the requirements for commercial radiotelegraph licenses.

A difference between amateur radio licenses and commercial radiotelegraph licenses is that commercial operators must be able to receive code groups of random characters along with plain language text.

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